Pott Puffy Tumour
It was first described by Sir Percival Pott in 1768.
Pott’s Puffy Tumor is now a rare pathology due to advances in antibiotic treatment of sinusitis. 
It can occur in all ages but shows predilection for adolescents due to increased vascularization in diploic circulation of the frontal sinus in this age, which allows a faster spread of infection.
Chronic sinusitis is associated with several intra and extracranial complications, namely pre-septal and post-septal cellulitis, intracranial abscess or meningitis, Pott’s Puffy Tumor and cavernous sinus thrombosis.
Pott’s Puffy Tumor was initially thought to be associated with frontal head trauma. Now it is known to be secondary to untreated or partially treated sinusitis and in extremely rare cases due to mastoid surgery, dental infections, wrestling injuries, and insect bites.
The etiological agents most frequently associated with this infection are Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Bacteroides sp and anaerobic bacteria. Nevertheless, these infections are often polymicrobial and antibiotic coverage should include gram-positive and anaerobes.
Pott’s Puffy Tumor can lead to life-threatening complications. In 85% of patients, Pott’s Puffy Tumor is a predictor of intracranial complications such as meningitis, cavernous sinus and dural venous sinus thrombosis, orbital cellulitis with or without intraorbital abscess (if the inferior wall of the frontal sinus is involved) and epidural, subdural or intraparenchymal abscesses. The spread of the infection can occur either due to direct extension by erosion of frontal sinus walls or by migration of septic thrombi through the diploic veins.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard to detect the presence of intracranial complications as intracranial abscesses and dural sinus thrombosis. Since MRI is a method with absence of radiation, it is useful in follow-up after medical or surgical management.
The treatment goal of Pott's Puffy Tumor is to prevent its progression to life-threatening intracranial complications.
A close collaboration between otorhinolaryngologists, neurosurgeons and ophthalmologists is necessary for appropriate and life-saving management of patients with this pathology.
The standard of care is intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics with good penetration in CNS and anaerobic coverture for 4 to 6 weeks (clindamycin, ceftriaxone, metronidazole, vancomycin), along with surgical treatment as drainage of subperiosteal abscess, eradication of potential infection in sinuses, and treatment of possible intracranial complications. Imaging follow-up should be performed with MRI.
Pott’s Puffy Tumor is a predictor of a potentially life-threatening infection and it is associated with high mortality and morbidity.
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- Liliana Costa et al, Pott's puffy tumor: rare complication of sinusitis, Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, 201