Facial Anatomy - Muscles

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The muscles of facial expression are derivatives of the 2nd pharyngeal arch and are innervated by facial nerve (CN VII)[1]. These muscles originate from bone or fascia and insert on skin to provide the movements of facial expression. The muscles of facial expression are enclosed by, or form part of, the superficial musculo-aponeurotic system (SMAS).[2]

Face muscle.png


Orbital Group

The orbital group consists of the orbicularis oculi (3 portions), depressor supercilii, and corrugator supercilii (oblique and transverse heads). These muscles provide movement of the eyelid, eyebrow, and periorbital skin and are innervated by branches of the facial nerve [1].

Muscle Nerve Action
Orbicularis, Orbital Facial nerve (temporal, zygomatic) Forcible eye closure
Orbicularis, Palpebral

     Preseptal

     Pretarsal (Riolan, Horner)

Facial nerve (temporal, zygomatic) Gentle eye closure

   Blinking

   Lacrimal outflow

Corrugator supercilii Facial nerve (temporal) Draws eyebrow medially and inferiorly
Depressor supercilii Facial nerve (temporal) Depression of eyebrow


Oral Group

The oral group consists of the orbicularis oris, depressor anguli oris, levator anguli oris, zygomaticus major, zygomaticus minor, levator labii superioris, levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, risorius, depressor labii inferioris, mentalis, and buccinator. These muscles provide movement of the lips and are innervated by branches of the facial nerve[1].

Muscle Nerve Action
Orbicularis oris Facial nerve (buccal and mandibular) Mouth closure, pursing lips
Depressor anguli oris Facial nerve (buccal and mandibular) Depresses corners of mouth
Levator anguli oris Facial nerve (zygomatic and buccal) Elevates angle of the mouth
Zygomaticus major Facial nerve (zygomatic and buccal) Moves angle of mouth superiorly and laterally
Zygomaticus minor Facial nerve (zygomatic and buccal) Elevates the upper lip
Levator labii superioris Facial nerve (zygomatic and buccal) Elevates the upper lip
Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi Facial nerve (zygomatic and buccal) Elevates the upper lip and dilates the nostril
Risorius Facial nerve (zygomatic and buccal) Moves angle of mouth laterally
Depressor labii inferioris Facial nerve (mandibular) Depresses lower lip
Mentalis Facial nerve (mandibular) Protrudes lower lip
Buccinator Facial nerve (buccal) Aids in mastication, creates sucking action

Nasal Group

The nasal group consists of the compressor naris and dilator naris of the nasalis, depressor septi, and procerus. These muscles provide movement of the nose and perinasal skin and are innervated by branches of the facial nerve[1].

Muscle Nerve Action
Nasalis, compressor naris Facial nerve (buccal) Nostril compression
Nasalis, dilator naris Facial nerve (buccal) Nostril dilation
Depressor septi Facial nerve (buccal) Nostril constriction via anterior movement of nasal septum
Procerus Facial nerve (temporal and zygomatic) Transverse wrinkling of bridge of nose


Auricular Group

The auricular group consists of the anterior, superior, and posterior auricular muscles. These muscles provide movement of the auricle and are innervated by the temporal and posterior auricular branches of the facial nerve[1].

Muscle Nerve Action
Auricular, anterior Facial nerve (temporal) Moves auricle forward
Auricular, superior Facial nerve (posterior auricular) Moves auricle superiorly
Auricular, posterior Facial nerve (temporal) Moves auricle posteriorly


Occiptofrontalis Group

The occiptofrontalis, or scalp, group consists of the frontalis, and occipitalis. These muscles provide movement of the eyebrows, forehead, and scalp and are innervated by the temporal and posterior auricular branches of the facial nerve [1].

Muscle Nerve Action
Frontalis Facial nerve (temporal) Elevates eyebrows

Wrinkles forehead

Occipitalis Facial nerve (posterior auricular) Moves scalp backwards


Neck Group

The neck group consists of the platysma. It provides movement of the skin of the neck and is innervated by the cervical branch of the facial nerve [1].

Muscle Nerve Action
Platysma Facial (cervical) Winkles skin of neck


Muscles of Mastication

The muscles of mastication are derivatives of the first pharyngeal arch and are innervated by the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (V) [2]. These muscles originate and insert on bone and provide movement of the mandible to enable mastication. The muscles of mastication consist of the temporalis, masseter, medial ptyergoid, and lateral pterygoid [3].

Muscle Nerve Action
Temporalis  Trigeminal nerve (mandibular; deep and temporal) Mandible elevation
Masseter Trigeminal nerve (mandibular; masseteric) Mandible elevation

Mandible retraction

Medial pterygoid Trigeminal nerve (mandibular; nerve to medial pterygoid) Mandible elevation

Mandible retraction

Mandible side-to-side

Lateral pterygoid Trigeminal nerve (mandibular; nerve to lateral pterygoid) Mandible protrusion

Mandible side-to-side


References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Norton, Neil S. "Scalp and muscles of facial expression." Norton, Neil S. Netter's Head and Neck Anatomy for Dentistry. 2. Saunders, and imprint of Elsevier Inc., 2012. 153-184.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Afifi, Ahmed M. and Risal Djohan. "Anatomy of the head and neck." Neligan, Peter C. Plastic Surgery. 3. Elsevier, Inc., 2013. 1, 3-22.e5.
  3. "Head and Neck." Drake, Richard, A. Wayne Vogl and Adam W. M. Mitchell. Gray's Anatomy for Students. 3. Churchill Livingstone, an imprint of Elsevier Inc., 2015. 835-1135.