Difference between revisions of "Lacrimal Sump Syndrome"

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|Authors=Michel J Belliveau
 
|Authors=Michel J Belliveau
 
|Category=Oculoplastics/Orbit
 
|Category=Oculoplastics/Orbit
|Assigned editor=Cat Burkat, MD FACS
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|Assigned editor=Gangadhara.Sundar
|Reviewer=Cat Burkat, MD FACS
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|Reviewer=Cat.N.Burkat
|Date reviewed=May 7, 2017
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|Date reviewed=December 9, 2020
 
|Article status=Up to Date
 
|Article status=Up to Date
|Local Videos=
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|Meta description=The lacrimal sump syndrome can be a cause of failed dacryocystorhinostomy surgery (DCR)
 
}}
 
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The lacrimal sump syndrome can be a cause of failed dacryocystorhinostomy surgery (DCR). It occurs when a remnant pouch of lacrimal sac retains tears and interrupts transit into the nose. When recognized, surgical revision is usually straightforward and successful.
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Lacrimal sump syndrome can be a cause of failed [[Dacryocystorhinostomy|dacryocystorhinostomy]] surgery (DCR) but is not frequently recognised by the ophthalmologist. It occurs when a remnant pouch of lacrimal sac retains tears and interrupts transit into the nose. When recognized, surgical revision is usually straightforward and successful.
  
 
= Disease Entity  =
 
= Disease Entity  =
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== Etiology  ==
 
== Etiology  ==
  
Lacrimal sump syndrome occurs following DCR when the inferior portion of the lacrimal sac is incompletely opened such that dependent fluid continues to collect in the sac, or when mucosal healing leads to re-approximation of cut surfaces. It may be seen following both external and endonasal DCR.
+
Lacrimal sump syndrome is a condition where patients report persistent tearing  following DCR when the inferior portion of the lacrimal sac, or the bone adjacent to the inferior sac, is incompletely opened such that dependent fluid continues to collect in the sac, or when mucosal healing leads to re-approximation of cut surfaces. It may be seen following both external and endonasal DCRs. It is however a diagnosis of exclusion, after rule out prepunctal ethology (lower eyelid laxity, eyelid margin malpositions, etc), punctal and canalicular obstructions.  
  
 
== Risk Factors  ==
 
== Risk Factors  ==
  
* Inadequate bony osteotomy and poor exposure of the dependent inferior portion of the lacrimal sac.
+
* Inadequate bony osteotomy and poor exposure of the dependent inferior portion of the lacrimal sac more commonly seen with poorly performed external DCRs.
* Incomplete opening of the lacrimal sac.
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* Incomplete opening of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct.
 
* Inadequate securing of proper mucosal flap position, particularly the inferior and superior edges of the flaps.
 
* Inadequate securing of proper mucosal flap position, particularly the inferior and superior edges of the flaps.
 
* Intranasal adhesions.
 
* Intranasal adhesions.
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== Pathophysiology  ==
 
== Pathophysiology  ==
  
Tear transit through the lacrimal system is stalled as tears collect in the remnant lacrimal sac before overflow and nasal drainage.  
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Tear transit through the lacrimal drainage pathway is stalled as tears collect in the remnant lacrimal sac before overflow and nasal drainage with possible development of infections.  
  
 
== Primary prevention  ==
 
== Primary prevention  ==
  
* Adequate bony osteotomy allowing complete opening of the lacrimal sac. Some authors advocate opening the superior portion of the nasolacrimal duct.
+
* Adequate bony osteotomy including medial wall of bony nasolacrimal duct allowing complete opening of the lacrimal sac down to the proximal nasolacrimal duct.  
* Secure placement of mucosal flaps to prevent sac reformation.
+
* Secure placement of mucosal flaps by meticulous apposition by suturing (external DCR)  or tension free approximation to nasal mucosa (endoscopic endonasal DCR) to prevent 'sac'reformation.
* Management of intranasal pathology (ex. corticosteroid spray, partial middle turbinate resection) to limit adhesion.
+
* Minimize intranasal scarring by avoiding bone exposure, excision of endonasal granuloma and maintaining nasal hygiene and promote primary wound healing with intranasal saline, . corticosteroid spray, etc.
  
 
= Diagnosis  =
 
= Diagnosis  =
  
Lacrimal sump syndrome may be suspected on clinical grounds and/or confirmed by dacryocystogram, radiographic imaging, or endonasal examination.  
+
Lacrimal sump syndrome may be suspected in a symptomatic patient post external or endoscopic DCR , with raised tear meniscus with or without discharge, who on endonasal examination has an anatomically patent but high osmium but discharge and residual inferior sac/nasolacrimal duct confirmed dacryocystogram, radiographic imaging..  
  
 
== Clinical diagnosis  ==
 
== Clinical diagnosis  ==
  
Patients experience epiphora following DCR. Pressure over the medial canthus may expel the collected fluid from the sac and into the nose, which may be felt by the patient. This can lead to transient improvement in tearing.  
+
Patients experience epiphora following DCR but found to be patent on lacrimal irrigation. Pressure over the medial canthus may expel the collected fluid from the sac and into the nose, which may be felt by the patient. This can lead to transient improvement in tearing and infection.  
  
 
== Diagnostic procedures  ==
 
== Diagnostic procedures  ==
  
Irrigation frequently suggests patency.
+
* Irrigation suggests anatomic patency.
 
+
* Dye disappearance test may show delayed transit.
Dye disappearance test may show delayed transit.
+
* Dacryocystogram (DCG) will demonstrate contrast entering the nose, but also retained in the lacrimal sac remnant, which is usually dilated.
 
+
* Endoscopic endonasal examination with probing of the upper system can demonstrate the residual sac. Endoscopic examination of dye transit can also be useful when possible.
Dacryocystogram (DCG) will demonstrate contrast entering the nose, but also retained in the lacrimal sac remnant, which is usually dilated.
 
 
 
Endoscopic endonasal examination with probing of the upper system can demonstrate the residual sac. Endoscopic examination of dye transit can also be useful when possible.  
 
  
 
== Differential diagnosis  ==
 
== Differential diagnosis  ==
 
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* Common canalicular obstruction
Common canalicular obstruction
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* Scarring of osteotomy site
 
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* Incomplete clearance of anterior ethmoidal air cell
Scarring of osteotomy site
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* Intranasal adhesion
 
+
* Lacrimal pump failure
Incomplete clearance of anterior ethmoidal air cell
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* Eyelid laxity
 
+
* Reflex tearing
Intranasal adhesion
 
 
 
Lacrimal pump failure
 
 
 
Reflex tearing
 
  
 
= Management  =
 
= Management  =
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== Surgery  ==
 
== Surgery  ==
  
Re-operation to address the sump syndrome can be performed through an external or endonasal approach. Cutting into the residual sac will disclose retained mucoid material. Additional bone removal may be required in order to open the sac completely. Care should be taken to prevent reformation. This may require mucosal excision, or flaps oriented with wide spacing.
+
Re-operation to address the sump syndrome can be performed through an external or endonasal approach. Cutting into the residual sac will disclose retained mucoid material. Additional bone removal may be required in order to open the sac completely. Care should be taken to prevent reformation. This may require mucosal excision, or flaps oriented with wide spacing and consideration for additional topical intraoperative Mitomycin C.
  
 
== Complications  ==
 
== Complications  ==
  
Potentially the same as primary DCR; however, expected to be less frequent given the reduced tissue manipulation involved.
+
Failure to address symptoms and other complications of a  DCR; however, expected to be less frequent given the reduced tissue manipulation involved.
  
 
== Prognosis  ==
 
== Prognosis  ==
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= References  =
 
= References  =
  
Welham RAN, Wulc AE. Management of unsuccessful lacrimal surgery. Br J Ophthalmol 1987;71:152-157.
+
# Welham RAN, Wulc AE. Management of unsuccessful lacrimal surgery. Br J Ophthalmol 1987;71:152-157.
 
+
# Jordan DR, McDonald H. Failed dacryocystorhinostomy: the sump syndrome. Ophthalmic Surg 1993;24:692-693.
Jordan DR, McDonald H. Failed dacryocystorhinostomy: the sump syndrome. Ophthalmic Surg 1993;24:692-693.
+
# Migliori ME. Endoscopic evaluation and management of the lacrimal sump syndrome. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 1997;13:281-284.
 
 
Migliori ME. Endoscopic evaluation and management of the lacrimal sump syndrome. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 1997;13:281-284.
 

Latest revision as of 17:34, March 10, 2021


Lacrimal sump syndrome can be a cause of failed dacryocystorhinostomy surgery (DCR) but is not frequently recognised by the ophthalmologist. It occurs when a remnant pouch of lacrimal sac retains tears and interrupts transit into the nose. When recognized, surgical revision is usually straightforward and successful.

Disease Entity

Lacrimal sump syndrome

Disease

Lacrimal sump syndrome

Etiology

Lacrimal sump syndrome is a condition where patients report persistent tearing following DCR when the inferior portion of the lacrimal sac, or the bone adjacent to the inferior sac, is incompletely opened such that dependent fluid continues to collect in the sac, or when mucosal healing leads to re-approximation of cut surfaces. It may be seen following both external and endonasal DCRs. It is however a diagnosis of exclusion, after rule out prepunctal ethology (lower eyelid laxity, eyelid margin malpositions, etc), punctal and canalicular obstructions.

Risk Factors

  • Inadequate bony osteotomy and poor exposure of the dependent inferior portion of the lacrimal sac more commonly seen with poorly performed external DCRs.
  • Incomplete opening of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct.
  • Inadequate securing of proper mucosal flap position, particularly the inferior and superior edges of the flaps.
  • Intranasal adhesions.

Pathophysiology

Tear transit through the lacrimal drainage pathway is stalled as tears collect in the remnant lacrimal sac before overflow and nasal drainage with possible development of infections.

Primary prevention

  • Adequate bony osteotomy including medial wall of bony nasolacrimal duct allowing complete opening of the lacrimal sac down to the proximal nasolacrimal duct.
  • Secure placement of mucosal flaps by meticulous apposition by suturing (external DCR) or tension free approximation to nasal mucosa (endoscopic endonasal DCR) to prevent 'sac'reformation.
  • Minimize intranasal scarring by avoiding bone exposure, excision of endonasal granuloma and maintaining nasal hygiene and promote primary wound healing with intranasal saline, . corticosteroid spray, etc.

Diagnosis

Lacrimal sump syndrome may be suspected in a symptomatic patient post external or endoscopic DCR , with raised tear meniscus with or without discharge, who on endonasal examination has an anatomically patent but high osmium but discharge and residual inferior sac/nasolacrimal duct confirmed dacryocystogram, radiographic imaging..

Clinical diagnosis

Patients experience epiphora following DCR but found to be patent on lacrimal irrigation. Pressure over the medial canthus may expel the collected fluid from the sac and into the nose, which may be felt by the patient. This can lead to transient improvement in tearing and infection.

Diagnostic procedures

  • Irrigation suggests anatomic patency.
  • Dye disappearance test may show delayed transit.
  • Dacryocystogram (DCG) will demonstrate contrast entering the nose, but also retained in the lacrimal sac remnant, which is usually dilated.
  • Endoscopic endonasal examination with probing of the upper system can demonstrate the residual sac. Endoscopic examination of dye transit can also be useful when possible.

Differential diagnosis

  • Common canalicular obstruction
  • Scarring of osteotomy site
  • Incomplete clearance of anterior ethmoidal air cell
  • Intranasal adhesion
  • Lacrimal pump failure
  • Eyelid laxity
  • Reflex tearing

Management

If the tearing is sufficient for the patient to request treatment, surgery is required.

Surgery

Re-operation to address the sump syndrome can be performed through an external or endonasal approach. Cutting into the residual sac will disclose retained mucoid material. Additional bone removal may be required in order to open the sac completely. Care should be taken to prevent reformation. This may require mucosal excision, or flaps oriented with wide spacing and consideration for additional topical intraoperative Mitomycin C.

Complications

Failure to address symptoms and other complications of a DCR; however, expected to be less frequent given the reduced tissue manipulation involved.

Prognosis

Small series have reported very high rates of success with surgery.


References

  1. Welham RAN, Wulc AE. Management of unsuccessful lacrimal surgery. Br J Ophthalmol 1987;71:152-157.
  2. Jordan DR, McDonald H. Failed dacryocystorhinostomy: the sump syndrome. Ophthalmic Surg 1993;24:692-693.
  3. Migliori ME. Endoscopic evaluation and management of the lacrimal sump syndrome. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 1997;13:281-284.