Difference between revisions of "Convergence Ability"

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|Authors=Liene;Muceniece
 
|Authors=Liene;Muceniece
 
|Category=Pediatric Ophthalmology/Strabismus
 
|Category=Pediatric Ophthalmology/Strabismus
|Assigned editor=Donny.Suh
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|Assigned editor=Kara.Cavuoto
|Reviewer=Donny.w.suh.CMT
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|Reviewer=Grace.Prakalapakorn
|Date reviewed=September 9, 2019
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|Date reviewed=May 2, 2021
 
|Article status=Up to Date
 
|Article status=Up to Date
 
}}
 
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The convergence ability should be a part of routine examinations. Patients with a poor convergence  while reading something can suffer  from headache and diplopia.  People also can complain of blurred words after reading. Sometimes children are shy and do not complain about this symptoms. Surprisingly patients with poor convergence can also be asymptomatic. If a child is diagnosed  with convergence weakness  he should be re-tested and it is useful to obtaining a full history of complains. In general  asymptomatic convergence weakness don't need any specific treatment.
 
  
It is not appropriate to test convergence ability for heterotropia patients
+
The convergence ability should be a part of routine examinations. Patients with a poor convergence while reading something can suffer from headache and diplopia.  People also can complain of blurred words after reading. Sometimes children are shy and do not complain about this symptoms. Surprisingly patients with poor convergence can also be asymptomatic. If a child is diagnosed  with convergence weakness, he/she should be re-tested and it is useful to obtaining a full history of complaints. In general  asymptomatic convergence weakness does not need any specific treatment.
 +
 
 +
It is not appropriate to test convergence ability for heterotropia patients.
  
 
= Near point of convergence  =
 
= Near point of convergence  =
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Equipment: A fixation target and a ruler.  
 
Equipment: A fixation target and a ruler.  
  
The fixation target is a pen or pencil. To get the child's attention a small toy with common character can be used. It should be with small details that are clear to see. Also there is special ruler for convergence and accommodation test.
+
The fixation target is a pen or pencil. To get the child's attention a small toy with common character can be used. It should have small details that are clear to see. Also there is special ruler for convergence and accommodation testing.
  
If there is a high level myopia or hypermetropia test should be done with needed correction in advance.
+
If the patient is highly myopic or hypermetropic, the test should be performed with the needed correction.
  
== Test performing  ==
+
== Performing testing ==
  
# Patient should sit down in a comfortable chair with looking directly at the fixation object that is placed at the nose level approximately 50 cm from it.
+
# The patient should sit down in a comfortable chair and look directly at the fixation object that is held in the mid-sagittal plane of the patient's head at the level of his/her approximately 50 cm from it.
# Room should be well illuminated so the examiner could notice minimal changes in eye movements.
+
# The room should be well illuminated so the examiner can notice minimal changes in eye movements.
# Examiner will move the fixation object slowly and smoothly close to the patient's nose. Moving speed should be proximately 40 cm in 10 seconds.
+
# The examiner will move the fixation object slowly and smoothly in the mid-sagittal plane closer to the patient's nose. Moving speed should be proximately 40 cm in 10 seconds.
# Ask the patient to note when he sees the fixation object in double. We should explain to the patient that object can become blurry, but still need to continue to fixate on it.
+
# Ask the patient to let you know when he/she sees the fixation object in double. Explain to the patient that the object can become blurry, but he/she still needs to continue to fixate on it.
# While performing the test, the examiner should observe the patient's both eyes because some patients do not notice diplopia - when one of the eyes is not fixating to the object.  As a result this point is the near point of the convergence .
+
# While performing the test, the examiner should observe both eyes of the patient because some patients do not notice diplopia when one of the eyes is not fixating to the object.  This point is the near point of the convergence (NPC).
# Move the fixation object far front from both eyes of the patient until they start to fixate on the object. Keep in mind that there is a recovery point when we are moving from the diplopia point to the point where the convergence will act again.
+
# When the NPC is reached, move the fixation object away from both eyes of the patient in the mid-sagittal plane until he/she starts to fixate on the object with both eyes. Of note, there is a recovery point when a person is moving from the diplopia point to the point where convergence will act again.
  
 
   
 
   
The test should be performed more than once to be sure that the patient understood and will follow the test. For the patients with convergence insufficiency repeated tests will move the near convergence point far from the previous ones.  
+
The test should be performed more than once to be sure that the patient understood and can follow the testing instructions. For the patients with convergence insufficiency, repeated sequential testing will move the near point of convergence point farther from the previous ones.  
 
<gallery widths="200px" heights="240px">
 
<gallery widths="200px" heights="240px">
 
image: Near point of convergence.jpg
 
image: Near point of convergence.jpg
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=== Results  ===
 
=== Results  ===
  
Normal near point of convergence is about 6-10 centimetre for normal eyes but the convergence recovery point (CRP) is until 15 centimetre. If the near point of convergence (NPC) is more than 10 centimetre there is sign of poor convergence.  
+
The normal near point of convergence (NPC) is about 6-10 centimeters and the convergence recovery point (CRP) is 15 centimeters. If the NPC is more than 10 centimeters, this is a sign of poor convergence.  
  
In addition, long hours and intense reading in people with convergence problem can cause asthenopia (diplopia and headaches). In this situation the recovery near point is more than 15 centimetre.
+
In addition, long hours and intense reading in people with convergence problems can cause asthenopia (diplopia and headaches). In this situation the recovery near point is more than 15 centimeters.
  
The results of the test should be noted for example, NPC 7cm, CRP 12 cm
+
The results of the test should be noted with NPC and CRP, for example, NPC 7cm, CRP 12 cm.
  
 
= Jump convergence  =
 
= Jump convergence  =
This test is more realistic to typical near viewing situation. As additional test it can be used for the patients with signs of the convergence insufficiency.
+
This test is more realistic to the typical near viewing situation. As an additional test, it can be used for the patients with signs of convergence insufficiency.
  
Equipment: The Dot Card or Brock String. The length of the card can be vary but must not be shorter than 20 centimetre. There are some black points at the midline of the card that are placed 1-2 centimetre from each other.  
+
Equipment: The Dot Card or Brock String. The length of the card can be vary but must not be shorter than 20 centimeters. There are black dots at the midline of the card that are placed 1-2 centimeters from each other.  
  
If the patient is high myopic or hypermetropic then the test should be performed with needed correction.
+
If the patient is highly myopic or hypermetropic, the test should be performed with the needed correction.
  
== Test performing  ==
+
== Performing testing ==
  
# Patient should sit down in a comfortable chair and the card is placed at the patient's nose level.
+
# The patient should sit down in a comfortable chair and the card placed at the level of the patient's nose.
# Room should be well illuminated, so any changes in eye movements can be noticed easily.
+
# The room should be well illuminated, so any changes in eye movements can be noticed easily.
# Patient will be asked to fixate at the farthest point at the card and should be asked:
+
# Ask the patient to fixate on the farthest point on the card and ask:
 
#*<code>How many lines are there?</code>
 
#*<code>How many lines are there?</code>
 
#*<code>Are these lines crossing at the fixation point?</code>
 
#*<code>Are these lines crossing at the fixation point?</code>
# If the patient can fixate to this point then move it to the closer point until the patient sees two parallel lines or just one line (in this case the other eye is suppressed)
+
# If the patient can fixate on this point then move to the closer point and repeat the questions until the patient sees two parallel lines or just one line (in this case the other eye is suppressed)
 
# The closest point where the patient can see these two lines crossing at the fixation point is the near point of convergence (NPC).
 
# The closest point where the patient can see these two lines crossing at the fixation point is the near point of convergence (NPC).
 
   
 
   
  
The test should be performed more than once to be get sure that the patient understood and will follow the procedure.  For patient who has convergence insufficiency repeated tests will move the near convergence point far from the previous ones.
+
The test should be performed more than once to be sure that the patient understood and can follow the testing instructions.  For a patient who has convergence insufficiency, repeated tests will move the near point of convergence farther from the previous ones.
  
 
<gallery widths="200px" heights="240px">
 
<gallery widths="200px" heights="240px">
Line 88: Line 89:
 
===Results  ===
 
===Results  ===
  
Test results should be written down for example convergence 8 centimetre (Brock String)  
+
Test results should be written down for example as: convergence 8 centimeters (Brock String)  
  
In an individual with a good convergence ability both tests should show the similar results.  
+
In an individual with a good convergence ability, both tests should show similar results.  
  
=Most commune errors=
+
=Most common errors=
# Relying on subjective near point convergence (NPC) measures and not objective observation of the eye fixation.
+
# Relying on subjective near point of convergence (NPC) measures and not on objective observation of eye fixation.
# Doing the test only once.
+
# Performing the test only once.
# Moving the target too fast that can over estimate the convergence ability or moving the target too slow so the child can lose the interest of doing the test.
+
# Moving the fixation target too fast, which can over estimate the convergence ability or moving the target too slow, where the child can lose interest of performing the test.
# Not complying patient or where the examiner is not encouraging the patient (most of the time a child) to follow the NPC target. Using different objects at each time.
+
# Non-compliant patient or where the examiner is not encouraging the patient (most of the time a child) to follow the fixation target. Using different objects each time can help keep a young child's interest.
# Not testing the patient in non standard gaze for convergence studies which is slight downward gaze for example testing in upward gaze.
+
# Not testing the patient in the standard gaze for convergence studies which is a slightly downward gaze, for example testing in upward gaze.
  
  

Latest revision as of 20:13, May 2, 2021


Convergence Ability


Diagnostic Intervention

Description/Overview

Convergence ability can be tested with 2 different methods:

  1. Near point of convergence (NPC) - is the point where the visual axes intersect under the maximum effort of the convergence. It is a measure of pursuit convergence.
  2. Jump convergence - the convergence level being increased by rapid jump to a closer point. A qualitative assessment of the convergence quality of fixation jumps from distant to the near target point.


The convergence ability should be a part of routine examinations. Patients with a poor convergence while reading something can suffer from headache and diplopia. People also can complain of blurred words after reading. Sometimes children are shy and do not complain about this symptoms. Surprisingly patients with poor convergence can also be asymptomatic. If a child is diagnosed with convergence weakness, he/she should be re-tested and it is useful to obtaining a full history of complaints. In general asymptomatic convergence weakness does not need any specific treatment.

It is not appropriate to test convergence ability for heterotropia patients.

Near point of convergence

This is a standard test for convergence ability. It is easy to perform and does not require special equipment.

Equipment: A fixation target and a ruler.

The fixation target is a pen or pencil. To get the child's attention a small toy with common character can be used. It should have small details that are clear to see. Also there is special ruler for convergence and accommodation testing.

If the patient is highly myopic or hypermetropic, the test should be performed with the needed correction.

Performing testing

  1. The patient should sit down in a comfortable chair and look directly at the fixation object that is held in the mid-sagittal plane of the patient's head at the level of his/her approximately 50 cm from it.
  2. The room should be well illuminated so the examiner can notice minimal changes in eye movements.
  3. The examiner will move the fixation object slowly and smoothly in the mid-sagittal plane closer to the patient's nose. Moving speed should be proximately 40 cm in 10 seconds.
  4. Ask the patient to let you know when he/she sees the fixation object in double. Explain to the patient that the object can become blurry, but he/she still needs to continue to fixate on it.
  5. While performing the test, the examiner should observe both eyes of the patient because some patients do not notice diplopia when one of the eyes is not fixating to the object. This point is the near point of the convergence (NPC).
  6. When the NPC is reached, move the fixation object away from both eyes of the patient in the mid-sagittal plane until he/she starts to fixate on the object with both eyes. Of note, there is a recovery point when a person is moving from the diplopia point to the point where convergence will act again.


The test should be performed more than once to be sure that the patient understood and can follow the testing instructions. For the patients with convergence insufficiency, repeated sequential testing will move the near point of convergence point farther from the previous ones.

Results

The normal near point of convergence (NPC) is about 6-10 centimeters and the convergence recovery point (CRP) is 15 centimeters. If the NPC is more than 10 centimeters, this is a sign of poor convergence.

In addition, long hours and intense reading in people with convergence problems can cause asthenopia (diplopia and headaches). In this situation the recovery near point is more than 15 centimeters.

The results of the test should be noted with NPC and CRP, for example, NPC 7cm, CRP 12 cm.

Jump convergence

This test is more realistic to the typical near viewing situation. As an additional test, it can be used for the patients with signs of convergence insufficiency.

Equipment: The Dot Card or Brock String. The length of the card can be vary but must not be shorter than 20 centimeters. There are black dots at the midline of the card that are placed 1-2 centimeters from each other.

If the patient is highly myopic or hypermetropic, the test should be performed with the needed correction.

Performing testing

  1. The patient should sit down in a comfortable chair and the card placed at the level of the patient's nose.
  2. The room should be well illuminated, so any changes in eye movements can be noticed easily.
  3. Ask the patient to fixate on the farthest point on the card and ask:
    • How many lines are there?
    • Are these lines crossing at the fixation point?
  4. If the patient can fixate on this point then move to the closer point and repeat the questions until the patient sees two parallel lines or just one line (in this case the other eye is suppressed)
  5. The closest point where the patient can see these two lines crossing at the fixation point is the near point of convergence (NPC).


The test should be performed more than once to be sure that the patient understood and can follow the testing instructions. For a patient who has convergence insufficiency, repeated tests will move the near point of convergence farther from the previous ones.

Results

Test results should be written down for example as: convergence 8 centimeters (Brock String)

In an individual with a good convergence ability, both tests should show similar results.

Most common errors

  1. Relying on subjective near point of convergence (NPC) measures and not on objective observation of eye fixation.
  2. Performing the test only once.
  3. Moving the fixation target too fast, which can over estimate the convergence ability or moving the target too slow, where the child can lose interest of performing the test.
  4. Non-compliant patient or where the examiner is not encouraging the patient (most of the time a child) to follow the fixation target. Using different objects each time can help keep a young child's interest.
  5. Not testing the patient in the standard gaze for convergence studies which is a slightly downward gaze, for example testing in upward gaze.


References

  1. David B. Elliott PhD, Clinical procedures in Primary eye care Fourth edition. Elsevier limited, 2014
  2. Brad Bowling Kanski's Clinical ophthalmology Eight edition. Elsevier limited, 2016
  3. Frank Eperjesi PhD, Hannah Bartlett PhD, Mark Dunne PhD Ophthalmic Clinical Procedures Elsevier limited, 2007
  4. Darcy A.Umphred PhD, Gordon U.Burton PhD, Rolando T. Lazaro PhD, Margaret L. Roller Umphred's neurological rehabilitation Six edition. Mosby, 2013.