Torpedo maculopathy

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Torpedo maculopathy (TM)/ solitary hypopigmented nevus of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/ paramacular albinotic spot syndrome/ congenital hypomelanotic freckle/ atypical macular coloboma was first described by Roseman and Gass in 1992, as a rare congenital anomaly of the RPE that produces a disruption of outer retinal layers [1]. So far, short series and scarcely any data about prevalence, demographics or incidence have been reported. Pathogenesis remains unknown and the typical lesion is a single hypopigmented area in the macula, asymptomatic, temporal to fovea and with a characteristic torpedo-shape.

Torpedo maculopathy


Epidemiology

Shirley et al. published an eight-cases series showing a slightly female predominance, being the mean age at diagnosis was 8 years old (range 3-15). Moreover, starting from population studies, incidence was estimated as 2/100.000 in Northern Ireland (Belfast) citizens of less than 16 years old, probably underestimated since it is an asymptomatic condition, though [2].

Pathophysiology

Several theories have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of TM:

  • A developmental deficiency in the nerve fiber layer along the horizontal raphe [3] .
  • Abnormal choroidal circulation or ciliary vasculature development [4][5].
  • Persistent developmental defect in the RPE of the fetal temporal bulge, which is an aggregation of these cells occurring between 4 and 6 months of gestation. It is usually found at 4mm distance from optic nerve, temporal to fovea, progressively decreasing between 6 and 8.5 gestational months. There is therefore speculation about a congenital RPE defect at a given point in fetal development [6].
  • As a consequence of intrauterine chorioretinitis [7].

Manifestations

On exam, visual acuity is not generally affected considering there is no foveal involvement, so that it is usually considered an incidental finding. Nevertheless, central scotoma or microscotoma can be present at diagnosis. It is mostly unilateral, flat, asymptomatic and non-progressive, although bilateral, crescent and satellite wounds are also reported [2] [8] [8][9]. Furthermore, association with neurosensory retinal detachment or multifocal central serous chorioretinopathy have been published [10][11] and a recent one with a double-torpedo lesion, as well [12]. Only 4 cases have been issued in the literature of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with TM, as it is commonly stationary [2][13] [14][15]. Owing to the RPE and outer retina damage, these lesions are susceptible of CNV appearance and need to be close followed-up[2] . There is a characteristic hypopigmented torpedo-shape area, temporal to macula, pointing to fovea with an hyperpigmented tail. The typical size is about two disc diameters horizontally by one disc diameter vertically, usually with foveal involvement [16].

Associations

Tsang et al.[17] also hypothesize its association with other systemic disorders such kidney diseases, blepharophimosis, situs inversus, choroidal nevi, ametropias, whilst Hansen et al.[18] described TM in association with tuberous sclerosis and astrocytic hamartoma. Notwithstanding, Shields et al.[6] maintained there is no evidence of the systemic association.

Differential diagnosis [19][7]

Condition Entity
Old retinal lesions
  • Chorioretinal scar.
Traumatisms
  • Retinal trauma
Congenital lesions
  • Congenital RPE hypertrophy
  • Gardner syndrome associated to congenital RPE hypertrophy
  • Congenital RPE albinotic spots.
Tumors
  • RPE hamartoma
  • Combined RPE-retinal hamartoma
  • Benign melanoma or acquired
Retinal dystrophies
  • Viteliform dystrophy or pattern dystrophies.

Diagnosis

Funduscopic exploration is patognomonic: solitary hypopigmented oval-shaped, with hints of a bullet or a torpedo, with a wedge-shaped tail extending peripherally and pointing toward the foveolar region along the horizontal raphe.

Figure 1. Hypopigmented flat bullet-shaped lesion temporal to fovea in the right eye. [20]

Diagnostic procedures

Figure 2. Hyperfluorescent lesion containing some hypofluorescent spots (dead RPE). [21]
  • Fundus Autofluorescence: Hyperfluorescent border (composed by lipofuscin produced by dysfunctional RPE cells or those under metabolic stress) surrounding the hypofluorescent area (atrophic or dead RPE), depending on the size involved [22].
Figure 3. A) OCT displays A Type 1 lesion with attenuation of interdigitation zone and ellipsoids, without outer retinal cavitation. B) A sample of Type 2 lesion: OCT shows cavitation in outer retinal layers as well as loss of ellipsoids. [21]
  • Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): In 2015, Wong et al. [23] proposed a classification of TM into two types according to the pattern of abnormality in OCT. In both types, there are attenuation of outer retinal structures (explained by RPE thinning and photoreceptor loss that can be attributed to several developmental defects [8] [17]) with an increased signal transmission along the choroid and conservation of inner layers.
    • Type 1 include lesions that show attenuation of interdigitation zone and ellipsoids, without outer retinal cavitation.
    • Type 2 show loss of ellipsoids and interdigitation zone as well as thinning of outer nuclear layer associated with cavitation. Choroidal excavation can be present or absent in Type 2 lesions, besides neurosensory retina; elevation does exist[23][24].
    • However, it has been recently reported a Type 3 lesion, which is not included in the previous categories, defined by excavated inner layers, retinal thinning, inner retinal hypereflective spaces, and no subretinal cleft [24]. Wong et al.[23] postulated Type 1 lesions evolves in Type 2 ones over several decades, although this have been refused by Shirley et al.[2] lately, asserting that the difference is phenotypical rather than temporary[23].
  • OCT Angiography (OCTA): a recent non-invasive tool to study retinal and choroidal vasculature. The primary site of malformation lies in the RPE/choriocapillaris complex [25][26][27][28]. There is a normal superficial retinal plexus and attenuation of signal in deep vascular layers along the lesion, with loss of deep vessels in the subretinal gap. Variations in deep retinal layers develop with time and are not on the location of the injury. Other findings range from diffuse attenuation of the choriocapillaris, hyporeflectivity due to atrophy correlating to the OCT subretinal gap and adjacent disruption near to the tail [29]. Choroidal vessels remain unaffected. OCTA En face imaging shows decreased flow in the area of the subretinal cleft associated with hypereflectivity in the tail area[26].
  • Microperimetry: Reduction of retinal sensitivity along the torpedo lesion which remains stable after follow-up. Seldom, it has been described sensitivity can worsen over time owing to persistent alterations of outer retinal layers and choriocapillaris[25].

Management

In general, since TM is a congenital condition, it is thought that remains stable over years with no risk of vision loss. Nevertheless, considering the rare possibility of CNV or progression, it is strongly recommended periodically monitoring these patients, semiannual or annual [10]. Patients can self-monitoring as well with an Amsler grid, although in cases of large lesions or the presence of pigment clumping, more frequent observation must be ensured.

References

  1. Roseman RL, Gass JD. Solitary hypopigmented nevus of the retinal pigment epithelium in the macula. Arch Ophthalmol. 1992; 110:1762.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Shirley K, O’Neill M, Gamble R, Ramsey A, McLoone E. Torpedo maculopathy: disease spectrum and associated choroidal neovascularization in a paediatric population. Eye. 2018; 32:1315-20.
  3. Pian D, Ferrucci S, Anderson SF, Wu C. Paramacular coloboma. Optom Vis Sci. 2003; 80:556-63.
  4. Teitelbaum BA, Hachey DL, Messner LV. Torpedo maculopathy. J Am Optom Assoc. 1997; 68:373-6.
  5. Papastefanou VP, Vázquez-Alfageme C, Pearse AK et al. Multimodality imaging of Torpedo maculopathy with swept-source, en face optical coherence tomography and optical coherence tomography angiography. Retin Cases Brief Rep. 2016 Oct 19 ([Epub ahead of print]).
  6. 6.0 6.1 Shields CL, Guzman JM, Shapiro MJ, Fogel LE, Shields JA. Torpedo maculopathy at the site of the fetal bulge. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010; 128:499-501.
  7. 7.0 7.1 De Manuel-Triantafilo S, Gili P, Bañuelos J. Torpedo maculopathy: two case reports and a literature review. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2016; 91(8):400-3.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Sanabria MR, Coco RM, Sanchidrian M. OCT findings in torpedo maculopathy. Retin Cases Brief Rep. 2008; 2:109-11.
  9. Richez F, Gueudry J, Brasseur G, Muraine M. Bilateral torpedo maculopathy. J Fr Ophthalmol. 2010; 33(4): 296.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Su Y, Gurwood AS. Neurosensory retinal detachment secondary to torpedo maculopathy. Optometry. 2010; 81: 405-7.
  11. Panigrahi PK, Minj A, Satapathy J.Torpedo maculopathy with multifocal central serous chorioretinopathy: A rare case report. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2018; 66(2):330-1.
  12. Raju B, Nooyi C, Raju NSD, Nidheesh S. Torpedo maculopathy with double torpedoes. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2018; 66(8):1189-90.
  13. Agarwal A. Gass’ Atlas of macular diseases. 1076. Toronto, Canada: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2011.
  14. Jurjevic D, Boni C, Barthelmes D, et al. Torpedo maculopathy associated with choroidal neovascularization. Klin Mon Augenheilkd. 2017; 234: 508-14.
  15. Parodi MB, Romano F, Montagna M, Albertini GC, Pierro L, Arrigo A, Bandello F. Choroidal neovascularization in Torpedo Maculopathy Assessed on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography. Ophthalmic surg lasers Imaging Retina. 2018; 49(11): e210-13.
  16. Trevino R, Kiani S, Raveendranathan P. The expanding clinical spectrum of torpedo maculopathy. Optom Vis Sci. 2014; 91: S71-8.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Tsang T, Messner LV, Pinol A et al. Torpedo maculopathy: In-vivo histology using optical coherence tomography. Optom vis sci. 2009;86: E1380-85.
  18. Hansen MS, Larsen M, Hove MN. Optical coherence tomography of torpedo maculopathy in a patient with tuberous sclerosis. Acta Ophthalmol. 2016; 94(7): 736-737.
  19. Golchet PR, Jampol LM, Mathura JR jr, Daily MJ. Torpedo maculopathy. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010;94: 302-6.
  20. Photo courtesy of Jaume.Catala-Mora MD.
  21. 21.0 21.1 Photo courtesy of Ignacio.Flores-Moreno MD.
  22. Thomas AS, Flaxel CJ, Pennesi ME. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence evaluation of torpedo maculopathy. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2015; 52: e8-e10.
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 Wong E, Fraser-Bell S, Hunyor A, Chen F. Novel optical coherence tomography classification of torpedo maculopathy. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015; 43:342-8.
  24. 24.0 24.1 Tripathy K, Sarma B, Mazumdar S. Commentary: Inner retinal excavation in torpedo maculopathy and proposed type 3 lesions in optical coherence tomography. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2018; 66(8):1213-4.
  25. 25.0 25.1 Grimaldi G, Scupola A, Sammarco MG, Marullo M, Blasi MA. Morpho-functional evaluation of torpedo maculopathy with optical coherence tomography angiography and microperimetry. Am J Ophthal Case Rep. 2018; 10:165-8.
  26. 26.0 26.1 Hamm C, Shechtman D, Reynolds S. A deeper look at torpedo maculopathy. Clin Exp Optom. 2017; 100: 563-8.
  27. Ali Z, Shields CL, Jasani K, Aslam TM, Balaskas K. Swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography findings in Torpedo maculopathy. Ophthalmic Surg Laser Imag Retina. 2017; 48(11):932-935.
  28. Giannakaki-Zimmermann H, Munk MR, Dysli C et al. Optical coherence tomography angiography features of Torpedo maculopathy. Retin Cases Brief Rep. 2017 Apr 3 ([Epub ahead of print]).
  29. Papastefanou VP, Vázquez-Alfageme C, Pearse AK, et al. Multimodality imaging of Torpedo maculopathy with swept-source, en face optical coherence tomography and optical coherence tomography angiography. Retin Cases Brief Rep. 2016 Oct 19 ([Epub ahead of print]).